10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 3 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlEvery time IÕve gotten a little bit of momentum, everything just grinds to ahalt.ÓLauren Bruce, Madison, Wis. Higher education administratorMy financial situation is vastly worse than that of my parents, who were40 when I was born.
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 4 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlThey always owned houses and had new cars, never worried aboutseeing a doctor, benefited from solid pensions and preached thatcollege was the secret to their success. (Their tuition in 1960sArkansas was about $250 a semester.) There were opportunities forthem that they were able to take advantage of. There was a ladder. I'mnot sure that ladder exists any more.I put myself through college, graduating with a reasonable $40,000 indebt and an education degree right into the beginning of the recession.The debt has ballooned, after IÕve gotten halfway through a masterÕsdegree, to about $70,000, despite my paying it back for almost 15years.ItÕs hard with student loans because thereÕs so much animus and kindof shame wrapped up in it. So much of culture tells you, ÒThis was yourdecision, you took out the money, you should have known that you weregoing to pay it back.Ó These are predatory loans. I went to a stateschool and took out a reasonable amount of loans and then graduatedinto a recession where I just couldnÕt pay them.There was no recognition at all in 2008 of people like me who came outof school and immediately had to go into forbearance and defermentand were just racking up interest for the duration while we were tryingto get jobs. I ended up working in a call center for the next seven oreight years. I could not get a job that had anything to do with my degreeat all.I have always worked, sometimes two, three, four jobs and side gigs ata time, and did so with a can-do attitude because we needed it and ithad to be done. But with student loans, it was like throwing money intoa black hole.
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 5 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlAt this point my payments donÕt even cover the interest. ItÕs so, so fargone. And thereÕs no getting out of it. ItÕs like a black cloud over yourhead.When my oldest child was little, I scratched our way into a great schoolsystem that was fed by a rich neighborhood, and he frequently foundhimself the kid with a bad haircut in secondhand clothes sitting next tofine-boned doctorsÕ children with BMWs in the school parking lot.Now he is college age, and I canÕt help him. So then weÕre talking abouttwo generations of student loans compounded for a college degree thateveryone agrees my son needs to succeed in life.This is the second big recession for us. ItÕs not like I can just pull outmoney from my 401(k). I emptied my 401(k) to pay for what I neededduring the last recession.Every time IÕve gotten a little bit of momentum, everything just grinds toa halt.My opinion is that because of the infrastructural changes, the policydecisions that were made between 1963, when my parents were incollege, and when it was time for me to start making big decisionsaround 2000, the deck was fully stacked against individuals and loadedfor big corporate entities to consolidate money and power at theexpense of us.I don't think it was that way for my parents when they were young.The life I envisioned having when I decided to follow in my fatherÕs footstepshas not materialized.ÓErick Axcell, Lawrence, Kan. Pharmacist
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 6 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlIÕm a pharmacist like my dad. I ended up taking over his store, which hestarted a few months before I was born. I grew up in it. ThereÕs picturesof me on the pharmacy counter when I was 7 weeks old.The life I envisioned having when I decided to follow in my fatherÕsfootsteps has not materialized. My worries about job security, and if the
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 7 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlstore will be able to stay open in the future, are constant stressors.It's nothing like when my dad started. George W. Bush and theMedicare Part D program really changed things. Now insurancecompanies are just squeezing you so hard. The big guys obviously writeall the rules so it's just constantly a challenge.Our pharmacy is allowed to stay open during this crisis. WeÕreconsidered an essential business. Originally the sales went sky highbecause everybody was stocking up, which is good because they donÕthave to come back in. But we wonÕt see these people for 30 to 90 days.ItÕs all changing so fast Ñ who knows what will happen 30 days fromnow?It has opened my eyes about government systems. My wife and sisterhave both filed for unemployment. I think people are realizing that, youknow, there is a reason for government interaction and help at times.Hopefully after this administration, especially after the pandemic andeverything, maybe people will see that thereÕs a reason for safety nets.Health care just has to be universal. ItÕs not just freeloading. You need itbecause you have to have it to survive.WeÕre thinking about having kids. I grew up with three kids in ourfamily.I canÕt imagine having three kids now and living the samelifestyle that my dad lived with my mom. Just financially, I donÕt see anyway that we would be at the level that they were back then, with thecosts of education, health care, mortgage and everything else. Youworry about bringing somebody into a world thatÕs a much worse worldthan you even imagined was possible.I didnÕt want to put myself in a situation where I would have to struggleÉ I
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 8 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlwanted to break the cycle.ÓChristopher Thomas, Alexandria, Va. Poet and teaching artistI grew up in a two-bedroom home in the Õ80s. My mother was a singleparent with five children. I am the youngest of the five. We were neverwithout anything, but we were also very mindful of what we had. There
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 9 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlwas struggle there.But there wasnÕt any sign of doubt or worry. We learned at a really earlyage to appreciate all that we got. It actually made me appreciateeverything I have now. I worked for it all, yes, but IÕm also content withwhat I have.I lost my mother when I turned 10 years old. My brother and I moved inwith my older sister and her husband. He and I were abused. I beganwriting poetry at age 13 because I couldnÕt bear the emotional painanymore. I began writing to escape all that.I am very fortunate to have the opportunity of being a teaching artistand a public speaker with no college education. Most of my work iscentered on child abuse prevention awareness, Black Lives Matter andthe L.G.B.T.Q. community. I teach workshops on being who you are. Thepower of poetry is so ignored. I want to keep going because art doessave lives.My mother worked literally until the day she died. She had no healthinsurance, no pension plan, no 401(k). Looking back on it, it breaks myheart, knowing that she didnÕt have an opportunity to have thosebenefits available for her.I am very fortunate to have those things. ThatÕs something that IÕvewanted for myself. I didnÕt want to put myself in a situation where Iwould have to struggle, not have anything to fall back, not have a plan inplace. I wanted to break the cycle.A lot of Americans do not have those things. That is something I havenever understood, especially in this day and age. I think things likehealth care and retirement plans should be automatically put into place
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 10 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlfor people.If you want a world full of future doctors, lawyers, senators, presidents,then education should be free. You want American children to go tocollege, to go to school, but they have to pay for it. Why? You shouldnot charge for education. And student loan debt? Abolish it. If we haddebt forgiveness in America, I honestly think financially we'd be betteroff. I really do.My parents very much believe that you can pull yourself up by yourbootstraps.ÓMelissa Haddock, Florence, Ala. Administrator
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 11 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlI really, really hope that this pandemic changes things in our countryand stresses the need for health care for all and more equality ingeneral.My parents, a mechanic and a waitress in rural Alabama, were able topurchase a home and land and save money for the future. When I was a
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 12 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlchild we lived in a trailer, but they transformed it room by room into athree-bedroom house with multiple levels and chicken coops andgreenhouses and all kinds of stuff. I live week to week and rent.I am an admin, which you think would be a decent living. You should beable to afford a car payment and a house payment. I mean, thatÕs whatmy parents could have done. It was more affordable; their fair wageswent further. But that is not something thatÕs a reality for me.I donÕt have health insurance. IÕve been opting out of my companyÕscoverage because it costs so much. Our wages have not gone up thatmuch and IÕm single. ItÕs really hard to afford a place just on my ownand thereÕs no way I could afford the upkeep of owning a home.My parents very much believe that you can pull yourself up by yourbootstraps. And thatÕs great when you have the resources to do that.But what about when we donÕt? What about when you donÕt have a bigfamily or a church that is that safety net for you? There is no resourcebeyond my job. If I donÕt hustle and make the money, then weÕrehomeless. We need universal basic income and Medicare for all.I quit school about two months before I graduated. Then I got my G.E.D.and started university after I already had two kids and started goingthrough a divorce. Things happened, and I had to withdraw fromschool. And that left me owing money to a university. I havenÕt beenable to pay that money back.My 19-year-old son has special needs, and he has been in long-termcare with the state. He is secure, thank God. Definitely a factor inreturning custody to the state for his care was that I needed toguarantee that it wasnÕt all on me. He needed more than what onesingle person could provide.
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 13 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlWhen the coronavirus hit, the state was either going to cut off visits orsend him home to quarantine. And so they sent him home. IÕve beenable to spend a lot of time with him and so thatÕs been really nice.I already worked from home before this. The biggest change isimpressing upon my 18-year-old daughter the importance of socialdistancing. That has been the toughest part. I live in northwesternAlabama. WeÕre a red state. Being careful is for Democrats andsnowflakes. So IÕve seen a lot of misinformation, a lot of people postingmemes about how this is no worse than the flu.My daughterÕs prom was two weeks into quarantine. She dressed up.The cat was her date, and we took pictures.My daughter is talking about maybe going into the military so that shehas some stability and free college so she doesnÕt take on that loan forschool. SheÕs talking about waiting a little bit to go to college. I justwant her to have meaningful work and when she gets sick she can goget health care.I would just really love for her to have a better country than what wehave right now.I have done better than my parents. I had the luxury of starting here.ÓIngrid Thompson, Bronx Advertising copywriter
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 14 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlMy parents instilled the importance of an excellent education. Althoughmy parents were educated and did well for themselves, as Jamaicanimmigrants they had to reinvent themselves when they came here. Ihave done better than my parents. I had the luxury of starting here.I feel that in my family in particular the mind-set has always been thateach generation held the responsibility to set the next generation up foreven more success than the last. That is something I hope to instill inour children: You work hard, and you don't forget your roots and whereyour family has come from. You never take an education oropportunities for granted. That in itself is building generational wealthbecause you're setting a mind-set for gratitude.Having a level playing field for education is important. I love the idea offree preschool for all. Things like state colleges offering free tuition isalso an excellent idea. A lot of people just canÕt afford college.
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 15 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlIÕm still working now. We have what you call a mother-in-law type ofhouse. My mother is with us and sheÕs able to help with our son, who is2. At the beginning of the lockdown it was really, really hard because Ifelt like I was doing more work than I would normally in a regular weekat the office. I shared that sentiment on Facebook and Instagram, and alot of people were like, ÒWe are totally vibing with you. Everyone feelsthe same way.Ó Fortunately we have a yard so we can go outside andrun around with our son.But there are other things, too. My father-in-law died this month fromcardiac arrest. Because of Covid, funeral planning is so much moredifficult. He has many daughters and sons and nieces and nephews,grandkids and a great-grandson. And they can't come and say theirfinal goodbyes. It's mentally stressful. I'm doing my best to be positive.I think my kids donÕt have even the opportunities I did.ÓLaura Rekuc, Allen Park, Mich. Nurse
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 16 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlI still live in the same city I grew up in. We live in a smaller home. I paymore than my parents did for my mortgage. Taxes have increased,medical expenses have increased, groceries have increased. The costof living has definitely tripled, at least.My dad was a general manager for a trucking services company. He had
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 17 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlhis high school certificate. My mom was an accountant. She went intothe field at 19. She was successful and very monetarily secure by thetime she was 40, and my dad, too. My parents became successful andwere able to climb the ladder without having a college background.I am a single mom raising five children. My health insurance costs, eventhough I'm a nurse, are substantial. When I got divorced, my cost forhealth coverage went to $600 a month. That's just to have insurance Ñthat doesn't mean deductible, co-pays. I still depend on my parents toassist me financially.IÕm a home-care nurse. ItÕs extremely stressful. We donÕt know whatweÕre walking into. I am currently living away from my children becauseof not knowing if IÕm going to be bringing home the virus.ItÕs very difficult. I have a 2-year-old who wants to see Mama every day.We live in a 1,000-square-foot home. ItÕs very crowded. So thereÕs not away to actually isolate myself there. I would say everybody who worksin the health care arena Ñ doctors, nurses, respiratory therapists,janitorial staff, environmental services Ñ weÕre all risking our lives.As a nurse, I have my associateÕs degree, and in order to climb thecorporate ladder or become more financially secure I would need to goback to school, which means more student debt.I think my kids donÕt have even the opportunities I did. My oldest sonand daughter both chose the college avenue. TheyÕre not really givenan opportunity to be financially secure when they start a job, becausethey start negative. My son will be starting out, by the time hegraduates, almost $60,000 in debt.The government could hammer down on these schools that are
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 18 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlcharging an excessive amount of money for a college education. Therecould be a set limit on how much they could charge.There is no sense of security. ItÕs just not the same.IÕm probably making quite a bit more money now than I would be if I wasliving where my parents live.ÓBrent Blood, Renton, Wash. Software architect
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 19 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlI grew up in a very small town in Pennsylvania, lots of farming andfactory jobs, that sort of thing. My parents both had fairly blue-collarjobs. My mom worked for the Post Office, and my father worked at afactory that makes trailers, the things pulled behind 18-wheelers.Because I'm an employee in a tech field that has a lot more opportunity
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 20 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmland there's quite a bit of money in it, I'm doing better than I expected tobe. We're saving pretty rapidly. We own our home outright. I've hadpretty little trouble moving up in the ranks of the company consideringI'm only 40 years old. I'm probably making quite a bit more money nowthan I would be if I was living where my parents live.My brother works at the same factory that my dad did and thatÕsabsolutely fine for him. He seems to enjoy himself. I just wanted to getinto technology. After college, I moved out to Seattle because that waswhere there was a lot of tech opportunity, and IÕve been out here eversince.The Seattle tech scene is really booming. IÕve been fairly fortunate withthe company that I worked for. I was already working from home plenty.As far as my own take on this crisis, I really havenÕt been negativelyimpacted by it, other than my social life is kind of suffering at this point.WeÕre not going out to eat. But that seems like a pretty slight thing toworry about right now.I had been hoping to retire in about five years. WeÕll have to see how themarket turns around with this right now. Hopefully, in the time frame Ihad in mind things will come around again.My parents migrated from Mexico so their future children could have a betterlife Ñ and we have.ÓSonya Poe, Carrollton, Texas Executive asssistant
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 21 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlMy parents migrated from Mexico so their future children could have abetter life Ñ and we have.I was born in Texas, in a suburb of Dallas. My dad worked for a hotel. Hewould work overnight, and he worked a lot of hours. My mom was apart-time real-estate agent.
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 22 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlTheir goal for us was always: Go to school, go to college, so that youcan get a job that doesn't require you to work late at night, so that youcan choose what you get to do and take care of your family. We'refortunate to be able to do that.I was the first one to go to college in my family. College was really eye-opening and just kind of a shock to my system. I did struggle a little bit.I had to have a job. I worked retail for a lot of hours and that kind of gotin the way of studying and taking the classes I wanted. It was acompletely different experience from other peopleÕs.My life now is definitely a lot calmer, a lot more centered on what I wantto do.We are very thankful and blessed to not worry about money kind of atall. I always feel guilty saying that because my parents are always sostressed about money. My husband has a good job. I have a good job.WeÕre kind of in a better position and we only have one child.We always imagine that each generation gets better than the last one.IÕm not sure. I think a lot depends on what we do with the cost ofcollege so you donÕt have $100,000 in debt when youÕre finished with it.I do see some things to be hopeful about. Young people are reallygetting involved more in politics and voting. Hopefully, our governmentand our society can be run by people who are younger and have ideasabout how to help everyone and move forward Ñ for everyone to bebetter, not just corporations or rich people.ItÕs impossible to get unemployment benefits. IÕve been trying every day allday.Ó
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 23 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlGabriel Rivera, Bronx Commercial driverIÕve lived in the Bronx all my life. We grew up in the projects. My parentsmoved from a small town in Puerto Rico to New York in the late Õ60s,early Õ70s. My father was a handyman. He is retired now. He put in 30years as a handyman and now heÕs collecting retirement benefits along
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 24 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlwith my mother.My parents bought a house in the Bronx about 25 years ago. I rent aroom in an apartment.I drive a school bus, which pays OK. But since Covid-19 took hold, Ihaven't been working. And it's impossible to get unemploymentbenefits. I've been trying every day all day.So now IÕm looking for work, and IÕm taking whatever comes my way.NobodyÕs taking buses now Ñ the touring bus, the school buses. Thecity bus ridership is so low. IÕm sure theyÕre not hiring. For now, itÕs astruggle.I have some college. I would like to go back eventually. Teachers wouldalways compliment my writing. I remember my professor telling me thathe was looking forward to reading more of my writing. I thought thatwas nice.If college was free, or at least if was much more affordable, I wouldhave finished.I just can't imagine how free college wouldn't really improve thecountry. Can you imagine? Everybody has a chance to get a college-level education?I knew that it was going to be an uphill battle. It got worse and worse andworse.ÓDaniel Okamura, Las Vegas Graduate student
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 25 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmlI am the portrait of downward mobility.I grew up in a pretty solidly middle- to upper-middle-class family. I wasthe youngest of three kids. I know that my father was makingsomewhere around $100,000 a year, and my mom worked on and off.By the time my parents were 40, I was 3 years old. They already owned
10/18/21, 11:39 AMOpinion | ÔI Am the Portrait of Downward MobilityÕ - The New York TimesPage 26 of 26https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/17/opinion/inequality-economy-1980.htmla significant portion of their house. My parents wanted me and mysiblings to follow our interests, because my dad got to follow hisinterest. He was actually interested in engineering.I began as a newspaper reporter. I knew that it was going to be an uphillbattle. It got worse and worse and worse. Finally, in 2007-2008, friendswho I knew through journalism said: "You have to leave California,because there's no jobs there. There are still jobs in New York."I packed up my little Corolla, and I drove across the country in 2008. Istopped in Cleveland and turned on the TV. The first thing thatÕs on TVis a talking head saying economists now agree that we have been inrecession since December of last year. And I was like, ÒOh, great. DonÕttell me IÕm moving right during a recession.Ó I get into New York, andalmost immediately thereÕs hiring freezes everywhere.With my masterÕs, I became an adjunct professor and barista, receivingMedicaid and SNAP benefits. Now I am in a Ph.D. program, deferringloan payments, and watching yet another job market shrink before myeyes.No joke, I have supplemented my graduate school income by going ongame shows. On "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire," I walked away with$20,000. That has really, really helped me during things like summer,because we're not paid over the summer.
This style sheet has been provided to assist students studying sociology in properly citing and referencing their papers and essays. The information in this document is taken from the American Sociological Association Style Guide (4th ed., 2010). We highly encourage students who plan to major in sociology or pursue their masters degree in sociology to purchase the complete Style Guide, which features sections on editorial styles, mechanics of style, guidelines for organizing and presenting content, and more detailed information on referencing your scholarly sources. Information about the ASA Style Guide can be found at www.asanet.org/journals/guides.cfm. PlagiarismThe ASA has a firm commitment to full and proper attri-bution and authorship credit, as set forth in the ASA Code of Ethics. (a) In publications, presentations, teaching practice, and service, sociologists explicitly identify credit, and refer-ence the author when they take data or material verbatim from another person’s written work, whether it is pub-lished, unpublished, or electronically available. (b) In their publications, presentations, teaching, prac-tice, and service, sociologists provide acknowledgment of and reference to the use of others’ work, even if the work is not quoted verbatim or paraphrased, and they do not present others’ work as their own whether it is published, unpublished, or electronically available. Text CitationsCitations in the text include the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Include page numbers when quoting directly from a work or referring to specific passages. Identify subsequent citations of the same source in the same way as the first. Examples follow:If the author’s name is in the text, follow it with the pub-lication year in parentheses:…in another study by Duncan (1959).If the author’s name is not in the text, enclose the last name and publication year in parentheses:…whenever it occurred (Gouldner 1963).Pagination follows the year of publication after a colon, with no space between the colon and the page number:…Kuhn (1970:71).Note: This is the preferred ASA style. Older forms of text citations are not acceptable: (Kuhn 1970, p. 71).Give both last names for joint authors:… (Martin and Bailey 1988). If a work has three authors, cite all three last names in the first citation in the text; thereafter, use et al. in the citation. If a work has more than three authors, use et al. in the first citation and in all subsequent citations.First citation for a work with three authors: …had been lost (Carr, Smith, and Jones 1962).Later: …(Carr et al. 1962)If a work cited was reprinted from a version published earlier, list the earliest publication date in brackets, followed by the publication date of the recent version used.…Veblen ( 1979) stated that…Separate a series of references with semicolons. List the series in alphabetical or date order, but be consistent throughout the manuscript.… (Green 1995; Mundi 1987; Smith and Wallop 1989).Reference ListsA reference list follows the text and footnotes in a sepa-rate section headed References. All references cited in the text must be listed in the reference section, and vice versa. It is the author’s responsibility to ensure that publication information for each entry is complete and correct.◆ References should be double-spaced. ◆ List all references in alphabetical order by first author’s last nameQuick Tips for ASA Style2138
◆ Include first names and surnames for all authors. Use first-name initials only if an author used initials in the original publication. In these cases, add a space between the initials, as in R. B. Brown and M. L. B. Smith.(See additional guidelines in the full text of the American Sociological Association Style Guide.) BooksAuthor1 (last name inverted), Author2 (including full surname, last name is not inverted), and Author3. Year of publication. Name of Publication (italicized). Publisher’s city and state, or province postal code (or name of country if a foreign publisher): Publisher’s Name. Examples:Bursik, Robert J., Jr. and Harold G. Grasmick. 1993. Neigh-borhoods and Crime: The Dimensions of Effective Commu-nity Control. New York: Lexington Books. Hagen, John and Ruth D. Peterson, eds. 1995. Crime and Inequality. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Jaynes, Gerald D. and Robin M. Williams, Jr. 1989. A Com-mon Destiny: Blacks and American Society. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Journal Articles Author1 (Last name inverted), Author2 (including full surname, last name is not inverted), and Author3.Year of publication. “Title of Article.” Name of Publication (italicized) Volume Number (Issue Number):Page num-bers of article. Examples:Aseltine, Robert H., Jr. and Ronald C. Kessler. 1993. “Mari-tal Disruption and Depression in a Community Sample.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 34(3):237-51.Kalleberg, Arne L., Barbara F. Reskin, and Ken Hudson. 2000. “Bad Jobs in America: Standard and Nonstandard Employment Relations and Job Quality in the United States.” American Sociological Review 65(2):256-78.E-ResourcesArticles and books obtained from the Internet follow the same pattern as those cited above, with the exception that page numbers are omitted and the URL and date of access are included.Examples:Schafer, Daniel W. and Fred L. Ramsey. 2003. “Teaching the Craft of Data Analysis.” Journal of Statistics Education 11(1). Retrieved December 12, 2006 (http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v11n1/schafer.html).Thomas, Jan E., ed. 2005. Incorporating the Woman Found-ers into Classical Theory Courses. Washington DC: Ameri-can Sociological Association. Retrieved December 12, 2006 (http://www.enoah.net/ASA/ASAshopOnlineSer-vice/ProductDetails.aspx?.productID=ASAOE378T05E). Web sitesA general rule may be applied to citing of Web sites: If the Web site contains data or evidence essential to a point being addressed in the manuscript, it should be formally cited with the URL and date of access.In the text of the paper cite as: (ASA 2006)In the reference list: American Sociological Association 2006. “Status Commit-tees.” Washington, DC: American Sociological Associa-tion. Retrieved December 12, 2006 (http://www.asanet.org/cs/root/leftnav/committees/committees). For information or to purchase a copy of the ASA Style Guide, please contact:Publications DepartmentAmerican Sociological Association 1430 K Street NW, Suite 600 Washington, DC 20005(202) 383-9005(firstname.lastname@example.org)Click here to purchase a copy of the ASA Style Guide!
Professor Michel Estefan SOCI 100: Classical Sociological Theory Winter 2023 1/6 Was Marx Right? Instructions for Midterm Project Most social theories worth studying are neither completely correct nor completely mistaken. They are a mix of ideas that are useful for understanding our world and ideas that need to be revised or thrown out entirely. This midterm project is designed to help you develop the skill and value of thoughtful ambivalence, that is, the ability to assess theories with more nuance, by pointing out what is useful and what is unhelpful about them. You will develop this skill by deciding what Marx got right about capitalism and what he got wrong. Your midterm project is due on Monday, February 20 by 11:59pm. Please upload your project in the corresponding module on Canvas. If you have any issues uploading your project, you may send it directly through email to both me and your TA. The midterm is worth 20% of your final grade. The instructions below take you through each step you should take to develop your project. Step 1: Read the Ten Economic Portraits Published in The New York Times In April 2020, The New York Times asked some of its readers in their 40s how they were doing financially compared to how their parents were doing in their 40s. The newspaper then published an article with ten of these “economic portraits “ (they received nearly 500 in total). The first step in developing your midterm project is to read these ten portraits, which you will find on Canvas. Step 2: Decide Whether Marx Was Right (on a Scale from 1-3)? Think carefully about the economic lives of the people that you just read. Based on these portraits, the readings you’ve done by Marx, and your own experience and viewpoints, do you believe Marx presented an accurate description of capitalism? I don’t want you to answer this question in terms of ‘yes’ or ‘no.’ I want you to score Marx’s theory on a scale from 1 to 3, with 1 meaning that Marx was mostly wrong and 3 meaning that he was mostly right. For every point you give Marx’s theory, you must identify a specific argument or idea you believe he got right, explain that argument or idea, and support it with information from the portraits. Similarly, for every point you don’t give him, you must identify an argument or idea you think he got wrong, explain it, and support it with information from the portraits. You can also give Marx half-points, in which case you have to state both what you think he got right and what he got wrong concerning a certain argument or idea. You may choose to discuss any argument or idea from Marx’s work, including his views on ideology, class struggle, class polarization, primitive accumulation, the relation between political equality and economic inequality, or any other argument or idea found in any of the readings by Marx that you did for this class.
Professor Michel Estefan SOCI 100: Classical Sociological Theory Winter 2023 2/6 The key is that for each point, half point, or no point you give his theory you must select a specific argument or idea from Marx’s work, explain it, state whether you believe he’s right or wrong about that argument or idea, and support your analysis with information from the portraits. You might say something like this: “Marx argued that capitalism increases inequality. For example, on p.X of the Communist Manifesto, Marx and Engels state that… What the authors are saying in this passage is that… I believe Marx was right about this because… In fact, one of the portraits illustrates this since [name of person] is...” In the example above, the first three sentences explain the argument or idea in Marx’s theory that you selected. The fourth sentence states your position about that argument (was Marx right, half-right, or wrong?). The last sentence draws on the portraits to support your view. If you give Marx’s theory a score of three, you must mention three things you believe he got right about capitalism. If you give it a score of two, you must point out two things he got right about capitalism and one he got wrong. If you give it a score of one, you must point out one thing he got right and two he got wrong. If you give Marx half-points, you have to state what you think he got right and what he got wrong concerning a certain argument or idea. Step 3: Present Your Analysis as a Theory Map or a Mini-Ted Talk The final step is to present your analysis integrating Marx’s theory of capitalism with the information provided in the economic portraits. You can present your analysis as a theory map or a mini-Ted Talk. Regardless of the format, the central goal is to explain the things you believe Marx got right and the ones you believe he got wrong and to draw on the economic portraits to illustrate your views. Your work should contain at least three specific page citations from Marx’s work and three citations from any of the economic portraits. You can draw the citations from Marx’s work from any of the assigned readings and you should draw from at least two different readings in total. Ideally, you will support your view about each point in your score with one citation from Marx and one citation from the economic portraits. You can include more citations if you like, but the latter numbers are the minimum. You will also have to include a reference list regardless of the format you choose. In-text citations and reference list entries should follow the style guide produced by the American Sociological Association (ASA). You will find a description of this style in the document titled “Quick Tips for ASA Style,” which has been uploaded to Canvas. This is how The New York Times article should be listed in your references list:
Professor Michel Estefan SOCI 100: Classical Sociological Theory Winter 2023 3/6 Kelley, Lora. 2020. “‘I Am the Portrait of Downward Mobility.’” The New York Times, April 17. Below, you’ll find further instructions for each format. Theory Map At its most basic level, a theory map is a visualization that presents the main ideas of a theory and how they are connected to each other using images, text boxes, lines, arrows, and other visual cues. Your map should represent what you believe Marx got right and what he got wrong about capitalism. In other words, it should represent the score on a 1-3 scale you gave the theory and draw on the information found in the economic portraits. You can hand-draw your map and submit it as a photograph or you can produce it on a digital device using any software you like. The only exception to this is AI software such as DALL-E. If you chose to use a digital device and decide to use images instead of or in addition to text boxes, you can create the images yourself or use existing images you find online. For images that are not public domain, include a reference to the source where you obtained them in your reference list. You may create a single map that illustrates all the points in your score or create a separate map for each point. In addition to the map itself, you must submit a summary of your map that includes a total of three specific citations from any of the works we read by Marx (or Marx and Engels) to support your analysis and three citations from the economic portraits. As I mentioned above, ideally, you will support your view about each point in your score with one citation from Marx and one citation from the economic portraits for a total of six citations in your summary (three from Marx and three from the portraits). Your summary should have no more than 1000 words. Even if you create more than one map to illustrate your score, you only need to write one 1000-word summary. You should also include a reference list that does not count toward the 1000-word limit following the ASA style guide. Your summary should have the following general structure: 1. In one or two sentences, present your score and a brief, general evaluation of Marx’s Theory. Here’s an example of what this might look like: “I gave Marx’s theory of capitalism a score of 2 because Marx was largely correct about X and Y, though he did get Z wrong.” 2. Explain each of the points in your score, laying out the specific arguments and ideas from Marx’s work, whether he got them right or wrong, and describing how you decided to illustrate them in your map. You might say something like this: “Marx claims that under capitalism, people are ideologically manipulated.
Professor Michel Estefan SOCI 100: Classical Sociological Theory Winter 2023 4/6 On p.XX of [Title of Reading] he argues that… I don’t believe he got this right. In my map, I illustrate Marx’s idea of ideology with the image of XX in the top-left corner of the map. But I place a “≠” symbol between this image and the text box to the left of the symbol to indicate that ideology does not necessarily produce the effect Marx thought it would. The text box to the right of the symbol includes the name of [name of one of the people from the portraits] because her views do not support the argument that she’s ideologically manipulated in any way. In fact, she clearly states that…” 3. Throughout your summary, remember to describe the text boxes and/or images in your map and how they are connected to each other, define any key concepts you refer to in your map, and follow ASA style guidelines when citing Marx’s work in the summary. The 1000-word summary should be written using 12pt font, Times New Roman, double-spaced, and 1-inch margins. Mini-Ted Talk Your mini-Ted Talk should be 6 minutes long. You may record yourself in video or record a series of images that play as you present your analysis. I strongly suggest you write a script before recording yourself. Make sure your script follows good presentation conventions: have a beginning, a middle, and an end. Practice your presentation a few times before turning in the final draft of the recording. This format DOES NOT require an additional written summary of any kind because you will be referencing Marx’s work and the portraits verbally during your talk. For example, you might say something like this: “In his piece on primitive accumulation, Marx argues that… I believe he got this largely right. Several of the economic portraits published in The New York Times show that… Laura Rekuc’s portrait is a strong illustration of this. She tells us that…” Your talk should present the rating you gave Marx’s theory, explain each point you believe he got wrong and each one you believe he got right while integrating some of the information found in the economic portraits. The three references to Marx’s work and the three references from the economic portraits should be stated as part of your talk. See the example above for how you might do this. You must hand in a reference list that presents the sources you cited following ASA formatting suggestions. You can hand this in as a separate word or PDF file or you may include it as a slide at the end of your presentation if you decide to record images as you deliver your talk.
Professor Michel Estefan SOCI 100: Classical Sociological Theory Winter 2023 5/6 This is the rubric that will be used to grade your midterm project: Required Sections (6 pts) A – Range (6 pts) Submission addresses three different ideas from Marx, awards each idea a score ranging from 0-1 (0 = wrong; .5 = half-right; = 1 right) for a max total of 3 points for all three ideas, discusses each idea and explains their score, cites Marx three times, cites the economic portraits three times, and includes a reference list. Submissions that discuss three different ideas, but cite Marx or the economic portraits only twice each may receive 5.5pts. B – Range (5 pts) Submission discusses two or three different ideas from Marx or cites Marx and the economic portraits two or three times each. The work includes a reference list. C – Range (4 pts) Submission discusses only one or two ideas from Marx or cites Marx and the portraits only one time each or does not include a reference list. D (.5 – 3 pts) Submission discusses only one idea from Marx and there are no citations from Marx’s work or from the economic portraits. F (0 pts) No project submission. Analysis (7 pts) A – Range (7 pts) The work presents three distinct ideas from Marx’s work and the student’s analysis is well-developed and supported by citations from Marx’s writings and the economic portraits. B – Range (6 pts) The work presents two or three distinct ideas from Marx’s work but the student’s analysis isn’t entirely clear or well-developed. Some citations are not well integrated into the analysis or are a weak form of support for the student’s point of view. C – Range (5 pts) The work presents only one or two ideas from Marx’s work and the student’s analysis is poorly developed, or it is not properly supported by reasoning and evidence from the New York Times portraits. D (.5 – 4 pts) The analysis is too unclear and poorly developed. F (0 pts) There is no analysis in the work. Presentation and Clarity (7 pts) A – Range (7 pts) The theory map or mini-ted talk is coherently organized and easy to follow. All sources are properly cited and listed in the reference list.
Professor Michel Estefan SOCI 100: Classical Sociological Theory Winter 2023 6/6 B – Range (6 pts) The theory map or min-ted talk is coherently organized for the most part but there are a few confusing elements in their design or presentation. Most sources are properly cited and listed in the reference list. C – Range (5 pts) The theory map or min-ted talk is often unclear or difficult to follow. Only some sources are referenced, or the reference format is incorrect or inconsistently used. D (.5 – 4 pts) The theory map or mini-ted talk is not well organized. They ideas are unclear and difficult to follow. Sources are not referenced following proper formatting guidelines. F (0 pts) The content presented in the theory map or mini-ted talk is unclear and does not follow a discernible logic. No references used. Extensions for the Midterm If you require an extension on the midterm, fill out the google form designed for this purpose that is on Canvas by Monday, February 20 at 11:59pm. You’ll find the form under the tab that corresponds to the midterm. You may request an extension of up to six days, meaning that you can hand in the midterm any day you select between Tuesday, February 21 and Sunday, February 26. Midterms are due by 11:59pm on the day you select. Your request will be accepted, no questions asked. Late midterms will not be accepted if you do not fill out the form by the due date and they will not be accepted after February 26. This policy is intended to be fair to all students while provide you with flexibility you may need without policing the reasons that motivate your request and make sure that you commit to completing the assignment in a reasonable timeframe.
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