Sample Exam 1 Questions
(1 pt) The falling (hyperpolarizing) phase of the action potential is due to the opening of:
voltage-gated sodium channels
ligand-gated sodium channels
voltage-gated potassium channels
ligand-gated potassium channels
(1pt) Suppose you experimentally hyperpolarized a neuron to -90mV and continuously injected current to maintain the cell at this potential. If you add a drug that activates ligand-gated chloride channels, would chloride flow into or out of the cell? Assume that the equilibrium potential for K+ is -80mV, for Na+ is 70mV, and for Cl- is -75mV.
Chloride would flow into the cell.
Chloride would flow out of the cell.
There would be no net movement of chloride.
It depends on how many chloride channels are open.
(1 pt) Which of the following is false of astrocytes:
They often envelop synaptic compartments and help regulate synaptic activity
They are important for myelination.
The form part of the blood-brain barrier.
They are a type of glial cell.
(1 pt) Which statement regarding action potentials is false?
Action potential amplitude is constant regardless of stimulus size.
They are initiated at the axon hillock.
They don't occur in motor neurons.
The duration of an action potential is a few milliseconds.
(0.5 pts each) Fill in the blanks with the following words: botulinum toxins, ionotropic receptors, leak channels, metabotropic receptors, sodium-potassium pumps, tetrodotoxins, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-gated potassium channels, voltage-gated sodium channels, gap junctions, transporters.
________________ are always open, allowing ions to flow down their electrochemical gradients.
________________ facilitate neurotransmitter release once the action potential has reached the axon terminal.
________________ bring neurotransmitter that has been released into the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron.
________________ allow the direct flow of ions from one neuron to another.
(1 pt) The parasympathetic nervous system:
is part of the central nervous system.
is turned off during sustained attention tasks.
is involved in "fight or flight" functions.
primarily controls glands and organs.
(0.5 pts each) Identify the indicated brain areas:
(1 pt) When serotonin activates an inhibitory metabotropic 5HT receptor, it is acting as an a. endogenous agonist
(1 pt) Which of the following is an example of endocrine to neural signaling that occurs when a male macaque monkey sees an attractive female?
Neurons in the thalamus of the male transmit visual information about the female to the visual cortex.
Neurons in the visual cortex cause activation of neurons in the hypothalamus.
Neuroendocrine cells of the hypothalamus releases gonadotropin releasing hormones to act on cells in the pituitary.
The pituitary releases gonadotropins which act on the testes.
The testes release testosterone, which increases the excitability of specific neurons in the brain, causing the male to engage in courtship of the female.
(1 pt) Which of the following is false regarding hormonal and neuronal communication?
Both hormones and neurotransmitters can act on neurons in the brain.
Hormones are able to act at longer distances than neurotransmitters.
Neurotransmitters can only act on cells that have the correct receptors while hormones can act on any cell that they are able to reach via the bloodstream.
The effects produced by hormone release generally persist for longer than those produced by neurotransmitter release.
(1 pt) Damage to the raphe nucleus would result in decreased production of ______________. a. serotonin
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