CRJ 4421, D3, JC
Hello, can you please provide your opinion to the statement below:
The topic of motivation just like personality has a vast amount of research behind in order to decipher what really is and how it works. Motivation has a great amount of influence when it comes to work or any other activity requiring some type of work because is what pushes people to complete such work or activity. Just like the topic of personality there is no single definition that is accepted globally for motivation but simple way to define such term is that motivation is a sort of desire to do or accomplish something by involving oneself in an activity. Now, when scientists state that behavior is caused, this means that there is a form of cause or motive that makes such behavior to occur. Ph.D., G.F. V. et al. (2019) reinforces this point by stating the following:
Behavioral scientists and experienced police administrators know that human behavior is "multi-motivated," in that any number of conscious, subconscious, and at times conflicting needs demand satisfaction simultaneously. It is the intensity of a need or the relative mix of needs that determines behavior in a given set of circumstances. (p. 119)
People that are motivated will always have something to strive for since their desires, wants, and needs are always present in some capacity which keeps them going. The nature of the human race includes seeking progression and want more which contributes to the cause of behavior. Likewise, the answer to the first question is important in the study of motivation due to giving the researchers a way to study motivation in a more controlled way. This means that researchers can developed different approaches of study for exploring the subject of motivation. With a clearer idea of what causes motivation researches can study the causes in order to understand how motivation functions in people.
The work that McGregor did involving humanistic theory allowed him develop theories of his own that were based on human nature. He named these theories based on human nature as stated by Ph.D., G.F. V. et al. (2019), "Theory X (the traditional approach to direction, control, and management) is based on a negative view of people. Theory Y (a more modern humanistic view) sees people as innately motivated and improvable" (p. 127). Each theory takes a particular path when it comes to viewing the nature of people in the workplace, and in this case one side takes a negative and the other a positive view. When it comes to management in the work place the manager adopts one of these assumptions along with its positive or negative nature when managing people. Both theories are constructed based on certain assumptions as well which combines with the view on the nature of people to complete the theory fully. Theory X for example has the following assumptions: people avoid work, since people strongly dislike working, they have to be punished or coerced for work to get done, and most people have no ambition thus avoid responsibility which then need to be constantly directed and controlled. Since, people lack the drive and ambition to work effectively the management must prioritize control and direction.
Now, the constructs that make up Theory Y are totally different than the previous one which consists on allowing people self-control/direction, and allowing increased employee participation as well as having motivation in the workplace. Also, to have a healthy work environment for people to work in as well intrinsic rewards that would come from achieves in the job. In other words, this theory promotes the wellbeing of employees and seeks success alongside all parts of the organization involving management and employees. The analysis of McGregor's work conducted by Lawter and Kopelman et al. (2015) states:
Theory X: (a) people are naturally lazy and try to avoid work whenever possible; (b) people are inherently irresponsible and, thus, it is necessary to closely monitor work behavior; and (c) most workers have little to contribute intellectually to the operation of an enterprise. Theory Y: (a) people can find work enjoyable, and under suitable conditions, experience motivation and fulfillment; (b) people are not inherently irresponsible; rather they are capable of self-direction and self-control; and (c) people have the potential to make important intellectual contributions to the work they perform. (p. 86)
The work of Lawter and Kopelman et al. (2015) provided a clearer framework on what each theory is based on, and with this example we can define the purpose that each theory is intending to follow.
Moreover, the self-fulfilling prophecy of Theory X does impact job performance quite significantly as the people in charge of management and administration want to change the employee's character and demeanor similar to theirs in order to conform to the organization's culture. According to Ph.D., G.F. V. et al. (2019), "new employees soon learn that their drive, ideas, initiative, and commitment are neither respected nor rewarded. They learn to behave the way they are expected to behave" (p. 128). This means that the prophecy prevents the development of a positive healthy environment for people to work, and does not allow for the people to grow in their respective career as a professional. In a work environment that is influenced by this prophecy eventually becomes more and more dysfunctional as time goes on, and everyone working in such unhealthy environment are not productive people any more. People are simply following what the corrupted people on the top want which drastically diminishes the likelihood of a successful organization.
Furthermore, based on what each theory entails it is clear that Theory Y is better than Theory X in terms of how it benefits the employees but since they are theories neither one is ultimately correct over the other one. These theories are just explaining a certain type of behavior than managers adopt based on their own assumptions towards people but in many cases, they tend to adopt the one that is not too favorable for others. Both are unique strategies when it comes to management but the one that is more productive when implemented is the one that would win over the other one. Additionally, from all theories on motivation I think that McGregor's Theory Y would be the most effective to motivate the workforce. The reason is that this strategy on motivation guides the management department in making a positive work environment for their employees. This allows employees to be who they are without having to change their personality, and this allows for self-growth at the personal and professional level. Another key aspect is that management cares for the wellbeing of the employees and provides the necessary tools or advise to help employees succeed. In other words, the strategy ensures that people are motivated by the right approach to fulfil their needs and lead the organization to success along with them.
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